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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:njcaipu.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我(wo)应该使用卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心吗(ma)?——加工(gong)工(gong)件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心类型的(de)选(xuan)定需要(yao)考(kao)虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)范围(wei)和(he)设(she)备(bei)价(jia)格等(deng)因素,根据所选(xuan)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)具有以(yi)下(xia)特征(zheng),则应(ying)选(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周(zhou)呈径向辐(fu)射状(zhuang)排列的(de)孔(kong)系(xi)、面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian),如箱体(ti)类、壳体(ti)类零件(jian)(jian)(jian)等(deng),应(ying)选(xuan)择卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)位置精度(du)要(yao)求(qiu)较高,宜选(xuan)用高精密卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心;零件(jian)(jian)(jian)在一次装夹中(zhong)需要(yao)完(wan)成多面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi),可选(xuan)择立卧复合(he)式五面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心。当然(ran),上(shang)述各点也(ye)不(bu)是绝对(dui)的(de),一方(fang)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心正(zheng)朝着复合(he)化方(fang)向发展,另一方(fang)面(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)(mian)选(xuan)型时(shi)要(yao)综(zong)合(he)考(kao)虑生产效率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求(qiu)和(he)设(she)备(bei)资金等(deng)因素,要(yao)以(yi)性(xing)价(jia)比来衡量选(xuan)型方(fang)案的(de)合(he)理性(xing)。

建议:采购用(yong)户需要(yao)根据加(jia)工(gong)对(dui)象(xiang)、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺、加(jia)工(gong)范围等(deng)特征来确定是否使用(yong)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心以及使用(yong)什么样(yang)的卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作(zuo)台尺寸

这是卧式加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)主参数,主要取决于典型零(ling)件(jian)的(de)外廓尺寸(cun)、装夹(jia)方(fang)式等。应选(xuan)择(ze)比(bi)典型零(ling)件(jian)外廓尺寸(cun)稍大一些的(de)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台,以(yi)便留(liu)出安装夹(jia)具所(suo)需(xu)的(de)空间,保证零(ling)件(jian)在其上(shang)面能(neng)够顺利装夹(jia),此外还应考(kao)虑工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)承载能(neng)力、T形槽(cao)数量(liang)和尺寸(cun)等,小(xiao)尺寸(cun)的(de)比(bi)较(jiao)通用,比(bi)如站(zhan)内的(de)卧式加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议(yi):目(mu)前(qian)市场(chang)上的卧式加工中心工作台(tai)尺寸(cun)多(duo)为1000以下的,能够满足大多(duo)数(shu)用户的需求。

(2)坐标轴行程

最基本(ben)的(de)(de)坐标(biao)轴是X、Y、Z三轴,其行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)和工作台(tai)尺寸有(you)相应(ying)的(de)(de)比例关系(xi),工作台(tai)面的(de)(de)大小基本(ben)上确(que)定了加工空间(jian)的(de)(de)大小。如个(ge)别(bie)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)尺寸大于卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)时,则必须(xu)要求零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)加工区域处于机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)(cheng)范围之内,此外(wai)还要考(kao)虑零(ling)件(jian)是否与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)交换刀具的(de)(de)空间(jian)干(gan)涉、与机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)防护罩等(deng)附件(jian)发(fa)生干(gan)涉等(deng)系(xi)列问(wen)题。而对需要多轴联(lian)动加工的(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin) (如增(zeng)加回转坐标(biao)A、B、C或附加坐标(biao)U、V、W),如四轴、五(wu)轴联(lian)动卧式(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin),这就需要特殊订货,同时必须(xu)对相应(ying)配(pei)套的(de)(de)编程(cheng)(cheng)软件(jian)、测量手段以(yi)及(ji)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)价(jia)格等(deng)有(you)全面的(de)(de)考(kao)虑和安(an)排。

建(jian)议:采购用(yong)户(hu)需要根据加工工件(jian)规格选择不同(tong)坐标轴行程的卧式加工中心,多轴联动需要特(te)殊(shu)定制。

(3)主(zhu)轴电动机功率(lv)与(yu)转矩

它反映了卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)削(xue)效率,也从一个侧面反映了卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)切(qie)削(xue)刚性和机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)整体刚度。主轴(zhou)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)功(gong)率在同(tong)类(lei)规(gui)格的(de)(de)(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上可以有各种不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置,同(tong)类(lei)规(gui)格的(de)(de)(de)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),主轴(zhou)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)功(gong)率可以相差很大(da)。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用户应根(gen)据自身典型(xing)零件毛坯余量大小、切削能力(li) (单位时(shi)间金属切削量)、要求达到的加工精度(du)、实际能配(pei)置(zhi)的刀(dao)具等因素综合选择(ze)。

(4)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速与进给速度

需(xu)要(yao)高(gao)速(su)切削或超(chao)低速(su)切削时,应(ying)关(guan)注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)范围(wei)。特别是高(gao)速(su)切削时,既要(yao)有高(gao)的主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su),同时也要(yao)具备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)相(xiang)匹(pi)配的进给(ji)速(su)度。目前卧(wo)式加(jia)工中(zhong)心高(gao)速(su)化(hua)趋势发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)从每(mei)分钟几千转(zhuan)到几万(wan)转(zhuan),直(zhi)线坐(zuo)标快速(su)移动速(su)度从10—20/min上(shang)(shang)(shang)升到80m/min以上(shang)(shang)(shang),当(dang)然其功能部件如电(dian)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)、直(zhi)线电(dian)动机、直(zhi)线滚动导轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)承等及(ji)相(xiang)配套的光栅尺(chi)、刀具等附件价(jia)格也都相(xiang)应(ying)上(shang)(shang)(shang)升,甚至很昂贵(gui)。

建议:采购用(yong)户必须根据自(zi)身(shen)的技(ji)术能力(li)和配套能力(li)合(he)(he)理(li)(li)作(zuo)出卧式加工中心的合(he)(he)理(li)(li)选型。

(5)刀库容量

可(ke)以(yi)根据被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的工(gong)(gong)艺分析结果来确定所需数(shu)量(liang),通常以(yi)典型零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中(zhong)所需刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)数(shu)量(liang)来确定刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容量(liang),卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心以(yi)选(xuan)用(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)左(zuo)右的刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)为(wei)宜。同时要关注最(zui)(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)直(zhi)径与长(zhang)度以(yi)及(ji)最(zui)(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)重(zhong)量(liang)等(deng)。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心,应选(xuan)择(ze)大容量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku),甚至配置可(ke)交换刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普(pu)通卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)中心选择40把刀左右(you)的(de)刀库即(ji)够用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)中心应(ying)选择大容量刀库。

3我需要选用什么精度的卧式加工中心?——精度的选定

加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度等级主要(yao)根据典型(xing)零件关键部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度来确(que)定(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度主要(yao)包括定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度、重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度和(he)铣圆精(jing)(jing)度,特(te)(te)(te)别是重(zhong)复(fu)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度,它(ta)反映了坐标轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)性(xing),是衡量该轴(zhou)是否(fou)稳定(ding)可靠工(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)指标。特(te)(te)(te)别值得注意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)是,选型(xing)订(ding)货时(shi)必须全(quan)面(mian)分析(xi),不(bu)(bu)能简单(dan)地看产品(pin)样(yang)本(ben)所(suo)列的(de)(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度数(shu)(shu)值,因为标准不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规定(ding)数(shu)(shu)值不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)(jian)测方法不(bu)(bu)同(tong),数(shu)(shu)值的(de)(de)(de)(de)含义就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊(kan)物(wu)、样(yang)本(ben)、合格证所(suo)列出的(de)(de)(de)(de)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)长度上允许的(de)(de)(de)(de)正负值(一(yi)般为正负0.05)常常是不(bu)(bu)明确(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de),订(ding)货时(shi)要(yao)特(te)(te)(te)别注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)要(yao)弄(nong)清(qing)是IOS(国(guo)(guo)际标准化组织标准)、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标准)、JIS(日(ri)本(ben)标准)、NMTBA(美国(guo)(guo)机(ji)床制造商协会标准)还是NAS(美国(guo)(guo)标准)及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)标准)等,进而分析(xi)各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标准所(suo)规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)检(jian)(jian)测计算方法和(he)检(jian)(jian)测环境(jing)条件,才不(bu)(bu)会产生(sheng)误(wu)解。

铣(xian)圆精度(du)是综(zong)合(he)评价卧式加工中(zhong)心有关数(shu)控(kong)轴的伺服跟(gen)随(sui)运(yun)动特(te)性和数(shu)控(kong)系统插(cha)补(bu)功(gong)能的主要(yao)指标(biao)之一。不论(lun)典型零件是否(fou)有此需(xu)要(yao),为了将来可能的需(xu)要(yao)及(ji)更好(hao)地控(kong)制(zhi)精度(du),必须重视(shi)这一指标(biao)。

要特别注(zhu)意区别加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)与机(ji)床精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)两(liang)个不同的(de)(de)概念(nian)。将(jiang)生(sheng)产(chan)厂家(jia)样(yang)本(ben)上或产(chan)品合格证(zheng)上的(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)当(dang)作卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是错(cuo)误(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)。样(yang)本(ben)或合格证(zheng)上标(biao)明(ming)的(de)(de)位(wei)置精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)身的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du),而(er)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)是包括卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)身所允许误(wu)(wu)差在内的(de)(de)整个工(gong)(gong)艺系统各种因素所产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)误(wu)(wu)差总和(he)。整个工(gong)(gong)艺系统误(wu)(wu)差产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)原因是很(hen)复杂的(de)(de),很(hen)难(nan)用线(xian)性关系定量表(biao)达。选型时,可(ke)参考(kao)工(gong)(gong)序(xu)能力系数(shu)Cp的(de)(de)评定方法来作为机(ji)床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)选型依据(ju)。一(yi)般而(er)言(yan),Cp应(ying)大于1.33。

站内高精密(mi)的几款(kuan)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动(dong)柱式卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心性能都不错。

建议:采购用户(hu)在挑选不同精度(du)的(de)卧式加工中(zhong)心时,需(xu)要(yao)考虑:不同标(biao)准(zhun)对应(ying)的(de)单位(wei)长度(du)含义;重(zhong)视铣(xian)圆精度(du)指标(biao);区别加工精度(du)和机床精度(du)。

4我应该选择哪种数(shu)控系统?——数(shu)控系统的选定(ding)

数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)分为基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)与选择(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng),可(ke)(ke)以(yi)从操作方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、用(yong)(yong)(yong)户(hu)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)、控(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、驱动形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、反馈(kui)形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、接口形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、检(jian)测(ce)与测(ce)量、报警与提(ti)(ti)示(shi)、故障诊断等方(fang)面(mian)综合衡量。基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)是(shi)必须(xu)提(ti)(ti)供的(de),而只(zhi)有当用(yong)(yong)(yong)户(hu)选择(ze)了(le)选择(ze)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)后(hou),厂家才会另行提(ti)(ti)供并另行加(jia)(jia)(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一(yi)(yi)般较(jiao)高。总体(ti)而言,数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)一(yi)(yi)定要根据加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)的(de)性能(neng)需(xu)要来(lai)选择(ze),订购(gou)时(shi)(shi)既要把需(xu)要的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)订全,不能(neng)遗漏,同(tong)时(shi)(shi)避免使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)率不高而造成浪费,还(hai)需(xu)注(zhu)意各(ge)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)之间的(de)关联(lian)性。另一(yi)(yi)方(fang)面(mian),在可(ke)(ke)供选择(ze)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)中,如(ru)(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性能(neng)高低(di)差别很大(da),价(jia)格亦(yi)相(xiang)差很大(da),进口系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦(yi)决定其价(jia)格的(de)高低(di)。总体(ti)上来(lai)看,法兰(lan)克系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)性价(jia)比(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)高,国内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)比(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)高。站内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)(yong)法兰(lan)克数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)也比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)多,比(bi)(bi)如(ru)(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)好的(de)选择(ze)。多台(tai)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)选型时(shi)(shi),应尽可(ke)(ke)能(neng)选用(yong)(yong)(yong)同(tong)一(yi)(yi)厂家的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),这(zhei)样操作、编程、维修都比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需(xu)要选择几(ji)台卧式加工中心(xin)能达到的(de)我(wo)的(de)产量要求(qiu)?——生产能力的(de)估(gu)算

选型(xing)时(shi),必须要(yao)考虑卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心能(neng)(neng)达(da)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)(neng)力(li),即要(yao)求选定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心在一年(nian)之内能(neng)(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出多少数(shu)(shu)(shu)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件。要(yao)得到这些(xie)数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju)(ju)必须对每一种确(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产(chan)(chan)节(jie)拍的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一般步骤为:首先,根据(ju)(ju)已(yi)选定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)分析(xi),初步确(que)定(ding)一条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路线(xian),在这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路线(xian)中(zhong)选出准(zhun)备(bei)在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第(di)二,根据(ju)(ju)现(xian)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参数(shu)(shu)(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出每道在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间;第(di)三,由每个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间计算(suan)出选定(ding)零(ling)件在卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)总时(shi)间,进(jin)而(er)计算(suan)出年(nian)产(chan)(chan)量即生产(chan)(chan)能(neng)(neng)力(li)。如果估(gu)算(suan)结果达(da)不到目标值,但相差(cha)不大,则可以通过修改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果相差(cha)很大,则应考虑增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心台(tai)数(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置。

建议:采购用(yong)户需要根据工(gong)(gong)件加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时(shi)和生产节(jie)拍的估算(suan),决(jue)定卧式加工(gong)(gong)中心配(pei)备台数(shu)。

6卧式加(jia)工中心有好多选配的附件(jian)我应该(gai)如何选配?——其(qi)他功能(neng)部(bu)件(jian)及附件(jian)的选定

(1)坐标轴(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)数

坐标轴(zhou)数和(he)联动轴(zhou)数均应(ying)满足典型零件加(jia)工(gong)要(yao)求。一(yi)般情(qing)况下,同厂家、同规格(ge)、同等精度(du)的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),增加(jia)一(yi)个标准坐标轴(zhou),价格(ge)约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)坐标轴(zhou)数可以强化加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的功能,是机床上档次的标志之一(yi),但最终(zhong)还是要(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)求和(he)资金(jin)条件下平(ping)衡决定。

(2)工(gong)作(zuo)台

卧式加工中心可配(pei)置(zhi)用于分(fen)度(du)的回(hui)转工作台和数控(kong)(kong)回(hui)转工作台,后者能(neng)够实(shi)现任意分(fen)度(du),作为B轴与其(qi)他轴联动控(kong)(kong)制。回(hui)转工作台配(pei)置(zhi)与否(fou)以及(ji)如何(he)配(pei)置(zhi)必须以实(shi)际需要(yao)来确定,以经(jing)济、实(shi)用为目的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)主要考虑换刀时间与可(ke)靠性。过分强调换刀时间会使加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)价格大幅度提高并使故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率上升(sheng)。据统计,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)中(zhong)约有(you)50%与ATC有(you)关,因此,在满足使用要求的(de)(de)前提下(xia),尽量选(xuan)(xuan)用可(ke)靠性高的(de)(de)ATC,以降(jiang)低故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)(zhang)率和整(zheng)机(ji)成本(ben)

(4)必要的(de)附件、配套件

选(xuan)型(xing)时,还(hai)应注意选(xuan)用一(yi)(yi)(yi)些(xie)配套件(jian)及(ji)附件(jian),尽(jin)(jin)量避免因缺少一(yi)(yi)(yi)个几万元就(jiu)能购(gou)买的(de)附件(jian)而影响卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)正(zheng)常运行。慎重选(xuan)择刀(dao)柄和刀(dao)具(ju)也是保证卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正(zheng)常运行的(de)关键,最佳的(de)选(xuan)择办法(fa)应是根据典型(xing)零件(jian)所(suo)需(xu)的(de)品种和数(shu)量来(lai)确(que)定,并在使(shi)用中(zhong)陆(lu)续添置。在卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)构成中(zhong),排屑装(zhuang)置、防护装(zhuang)置和对(dui)刀(dao)装(zhuang)置 (如刀(dao)具(ju)预调仪)等(deng)均是必需(xu)的(de),对(dui)一(yi)(yi)(yi)些(xie)尽(jin)(jin)管不(bu)是必需(xu)的(de)配套件(jian),但(dan)如果价格不(bu)高,对(dui)使(shi)用带来(lai)很多(duo)方(fang)便(bian),也应尽(jin)(jin)量选(xuan)用,如附件(jian)铣头、储刀(dao)料(liao)架、运刀(dao)具(ju)车、装(zhuang)卸器(qi)等(deng)。

建(jian)议:配件越高,能实(shi)现的功能越多(duo),但价格也越贵(gui),采购(gou)用(yong)户需(xu)要根据加工需(xu)求酌情(qing)选配。

7卧(wo)式加工中心选型时还有什么(me)其他需要注意(yi)的?——需要注意(yi)的一些问题

(1)结(jie)构设(she)计

加工中心对(dui)其(qi)床身、立柱、工作(zuo)(zuo)台、主轴(zhou)以及刀库等功能部件的(de)结(jie)(jie)构(gou)设计有着很高的(de)要求,以达到其(qi)高强度(du)、高刚(gang)度(du)、高抗振性和稳定性的(de)目的(de)。选型时,应特(te)别(bie)注意把其(qi)结(jie)(jie)构(gou)作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)一项(xiang)重(zhong)要的(de)具体内容来进(jin)行要求与(yu)考虑。

(2)功能(neng)与加(jia)工的适应性

虽(sui)然加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心可以进行钻、扩、铣(xian)、镗(tang)、铰、攻螺(luo)纹乃至车削(xue) (如车铣(xian)复合(he)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心)等(deng)多种加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong),但是在具体(ti)选(xuan)择时,还(hai)应根(gen)据具体(ti)需要(yao)来(lai)考虑机(ji)床的功能与加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)是否相(xiang)适(shi)应等(deng)问(wen)题(ti)。要(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲线(xian)加(jia)工时,要考虑(lv)CNC是否有所需(xu)要的曲线(xian)插(cha)补(bu)功(gong)能,或选择什(shen)么(me)方式(shi)逼(bi)近(jin)加(jia)工曲线(xian)并保证所要求的表面粗糙度。三维加(jia)工时,要考虑(lv)选择适合的刀具(ju)结构,还要考虑(lv)程(cheng)(cheng)序编制能力,如有必要则必须配备自动(dong)编程(cheng)(cheng)装置(zhi)或后置(zhi)处理编程(cheng)(cheng)装置(zhi)。

B、需要进行螺(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue) (非(fei)攻(gong)螺(luo)纹(wen)方式)时(shi),不(bu)仅要看是否有螺(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)、螺(luo)旋线插补功(gong)(gong)能(neng)和(he)主(zhu)(zhu)轴转(zhuan)动与(yu)进给(ji)同(tong)步功(gong)(gong)能(neng),还(hai)要考虑(lv)机(ji)床(chuang)是否有径向进给(ji)装置(zhi)、是否有主(zhu)(zhu)轴在(zai)旋转(zhuan)方向上(shang)任意角度位置(zhi)准确定(ding)位功(gong)(gong)能(neng)。否则,仅在(zai)数控(kong)系(xi)统中用了螺(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)仍然无法进行螺(luo)纹(wen)切削(xue)C、采用金(jin)刚铰、浮动镗和(he)挤压加(jia)工(gong)(gong)等特种加(jia)工(gong)(gong)时(shi),既(ji)要考虑(lv)适宜的自动换刀(dao)的条件(jian),又要考虑(lv)选(xuan)择合适的刀(dao)具结构(gou)和(he)切削(xue)用量,应尽可能(neng)在(zai)购(gou)(gou)买主(zhu)(zhu)机(ji)时(shi)一并购(gou)(gou)置(zhi)部(bu)分(fen)易损部(bu)件(jian)及其他附件(jian)等。

D、如(ru)果有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的(de)规划,或要进(jin)行网(wang)(wang)络制造(zao),则要注意通(tong)(tong)信功(gong)能,应选择具(ju)有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网(wang)(wang)络通(tong)(tong)信、CAN总线等接口的(de)系(xi)统。

(3)运转(zhuan)的可靠(kao)性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用户在选型时,需要对卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)整体的(de)(de)结构设(she)计(ji)、可(ke)靠性以及价(jia)加工(gong)适应性有客观的(de)(de)认识。


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