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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:njcaipu.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)由(you)主(zhu)(zhu)体(ti)、驱动(dong)(dong)系统和控制系统三(san)个基本部(bu)(bu)分组成(cheng)。按机(ji)(ji)器(qi)人结(jie)(jie)构分类为(wei)(wei)直角坐(zuo)标型,机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)沿二维直角坐(zuo)标系移动(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)(zhu)体(ti)部(bu)(bu)分通(tong)常采(cai)(cai)用龙(long)门式结(jie)(jie)构,由(you)y向横(heng)(heng)梁与导轨(gui)、z向滑枕(zhen)、十(shi)字滑座(zuo)(zuo)、立柱、过(guo)渡连接板和基座(zuo)(zuo)等部(bu)(bu)分组成(cheng),z向的(de)直线运动(dong)(dong)皆(jie)为(wei)(wei)交(jiao)流伺服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)通(tong)过(guo)蜗轮(lun)减速器(qi)驱动(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与y向横(heng)(heng)梁、z向滑枕(zhen)上(shang)(shang)固定(ding)的(de)齿条(tiao)(tiao)作滚动(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)(bu)件(jian)沿导轨(gui)快(kuai)速运动(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)(bu)件(jian)为(wei)(wei)质量较(jiao)轻的(de)十(shi)字滑座(zuo)(zuo)和z向滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采(cai)(cai)用由(you)铝合金(jin)拉(la)制的(de)型材。横(heng)(heng)梁采(cai)(cai)用方钢型材,在横(heng)(heng)梁上(shang)(shang)安装有导轨(gui)和齿条(tiao)(tiao),通(tong)过(guo)滚轮(lun)与导轨(gui)接触,整(zheng)个机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)都悬挂在其上(shang)(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于(yu)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)时间(jian)短。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较重(zhong)的(de)工(gong)件(jian)时,惯量(liang)大,因此,伺服(fu)驱动(dong)电机(ji)(ji)要(yao)有足够(gou)的(de)驱动(dong)和(he)(he)(he)(he)制动(dong)的(de)能力(li),支撑(cheng)元(yuan)件(jian)也要(yao)有足够(gou)的(de)刚(gang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)(du)(du)。只有这(zhei)样,才能使伺服(fu)电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)高响应、高刚(gang)度(du)(du)(du)(du)及高精度(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)选(xuan)(xuan)择合适伺服(fu)电动(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)情况下,根据(ju)物料运(yun)动(dong)的(de)距离和(he)(he)(he)(he)运(yun)行节(jie)(jie)拍,计算(suan)出(chu)伺服(fu)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)位移和(he)(he)(he)(he)轨迹,对驱动(dong)器(qi)PID参数进(jin)行动(dong)态(tai)调(diao)整(zheng)。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)根据(ju)接收到的(de)位移、速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du)指(zhi)令,经变化、放大并调(diao)整(zheng)处理后,传(chuan)递给运(yun)动(dong)单元(yuan),通(tong)过(guo)光(guang)纤(xian)传(chuan)感(gan)器(qi)对运(yun)行状态(tai)进(jin)行实时检测,在(zai)高速(su)搬运(yun)过(guo)程中(zhong),运(yun)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)在(zai)极短的(de)时间(jian)内到达(da)给定(ding)的(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)(du),并能在(zai)高速(su)行程中(zhong)瞬间(jian)准停,通(tong)过(guo)高分辩率绝对式编码器(qi)的(de)插补(bu)运(yun)算(suan),控制机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)误差(cha)和(he)(he)(he)(he)测量(liang)误差(cha)对运(yun)动(dong)精度(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)影(ying)响。由于(yu)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)工(gong)件(jian)不同(tong),质(zhi)量(liang)也不同(tong),因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)有多种(zhong)规格(ge)和(he)(he)(he)(he)系(xi)列。在(zai)选(xuan)(xuan)择时,根据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)质(zhi)量(liang),加(jia)工(gong)的(de)节(jie)(jie)拍来选(xuan)(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)手(shou)臂,夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)方(fang)式,则(ze)根据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)形状、结构(gou)及机(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)(jia)具(ju)定(ding)夹(jia)(jia)方(fang)式来设计(见(jian)图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借助可编程序来处理和(he)(he)执(zhi)行任务(wu)。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要由(you)手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转(zhuan)装置、运动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)及(ji)驱动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)组成。通过对工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)外(wai)形或工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)上(shang)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)支撑点定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)线物流(liu)输(shu)送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会根据(ju)缸体、缸盖、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的外(wai)形特点,选(xuan)取不(bu)同(tong)的定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)方(fang)式(shi)。柔(rou)性(xing)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)采用气缸和(he)(he)电机(ji)(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和(he)(he)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的切换(huan)驱动(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)可完成不(bu)同(tong)品种(zhong)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)搬(ban)运工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可根据(ju)产(chan)品质量和(he)(he)外(wai)形的大小采用系(xi)列化(hua)(hua)设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)的夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安装方(fang)式(shi)相(xiang)同(tong),针(zhen)对不(bu)同(tong)系(xi)列的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只需切换(huan)相(xiang)应的夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即可,满足快速切换(huan)的需要。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)不(bu)同(tong)品种(zhong)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只须变换(huan)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就(jiu)可实现,提高了桁架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的柔(rou)性(xing)化(hua)(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自(zi)动线桁架机械手(shou)输送装置的发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,经历了(le)刚性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)时代(dai)。就目(mu)(mu)前(qian)而言, 在(zai)国内(nei)二(er)者(zhe)均(jun)有之。刚性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘(ji)轮(lun)棘(ji)爪、摆(bai)杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等形(xing)式(shi)。随(sui)(sui)着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,由其(qi)(qi)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替(ti)代(dai)组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)应(ying)小批(pi)量(liang)多品种(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并(bing)称其(qi)(qi)为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种(zhong)(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),就其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为(wei)(wei)刚性(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)又有了(le)飞跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式(shi)以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou))并(bing)存(cun),或纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)全部(bu)(bu)由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心配以(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)(wei)敏捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)(shi)敏捷(jie)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)(sui)意改变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那(nei)样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)或步(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进行(xing)(xing)严(yan)格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而改变(bian)(bian)。而真正体现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要一面是(shi)(shi)(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改变(bian)(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)(bu)分(fen)不会(hui)不适(shi)应(ying)而全部(bu)(bu)更(geng)换(huan),只要改变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)局(ju)部(bu)(bu)结构(gou)即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)才在(zai)当今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多地(di)被采(cai)用,使整个(ge)生产过(guo)程通过(guo)信(xin)息流系统(tong)进行(xing)(xing)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中(zhong),所需各(ge)种(zhong)(zhong)信(xin)息收(shou)集、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)通过(guo)电(dian)子计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)(qi)他(ta)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床或运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)(xing)分(fen)级控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)息流系统(tong)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)由中(zhong)央管(guan)理(li)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)息传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。目(mu)(mu)前(qian),汽车(che)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等大(da)批(pi)量(liang)关键(jian)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)都采(cai)用了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外(wai)的差(cha)距(ju)

当下(xia),我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展很快,技术(shu)水(shui)(shui)平有了(le)很大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju)变得越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)小,甚(shen)至有些机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外相比已经没有什么差距(ju)(ju)。特别(bie)(bie)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大科技专(zhuan)项(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开展,为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上档(dang)次上水(shui)(shui)平提高了(le)加(jia)速度,成绩显(xian)而(er)易(yi)见。加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年(nian)发(fa)(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特别(bie)(bie)快,但柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水(shui)(shui)平和档(dang)次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju)还很明(ming)显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为数不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),大多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外进(jin)(jin)口。如无锡(xi)柴油发(fa)(fa)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体缸(gang)盖柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承(cheng)包,由BZ800加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)组(zu)成。输(shu)送(song)(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和机(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)制(zhi)造业而(er)言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)和沈阳机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)等(deng)生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)产(chan)实(shi)际中(zhong)(zhong)得到(dao)了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两(liang)种缸(gang)体,分别(bie)(bie)为四缸(gang)和六(liu)缸(gang),其输(shu)送(song)(song)采用(yong)空中(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)两(liang)端为机(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道等(deng)形式(shi)。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)两(liang)个,一个上料(liao),一个下(xia)料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成功,标(biao)志(zhi)着我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始(shi)向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)(shui)准迈进(jin)(jin)。

上述提(ti)及的(de)(de)只(zhi)是(shi)数量(liang)上的(de)(de)比较,其(qi)实真(zhen)正(zheng)的(de)(de)原因还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)技术水平与(yu)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)有(you)着一定的(de)(de)差(cha)距。柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)采(cai)用的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou),也是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没有(you)专门生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)厂家。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)生产(chan)厂家的(de)(de)涌出(chu),为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)带来了希望,进而(er)缩小了与(yu)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)方面的(de)(de)差(cha)距,国(guo)(guo)产(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)在柔(rou)性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)应用也越来越多,从(cong)而(er)打(da)破国(guo)(guo)产(chan)市(shi)场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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